Behaviour Change Communication

Behavior change communication (BCC) can be defined as the strategic use of communication to promote positive health outcomes which are based on proven theories and models of behavior change. Behaviour change communication involves a series of steps which must be followed in a systematic way to achieve the best results.  These steps include:
•    Formative research and behavior analysis
•    Target Group segmentation
•    Formulation of behavioural objectives
•    Communication planning & implementation
•    Material development and pre-testing
•    Monitoring and evaluation
BBC has been used extensively in HIV/AIDS Prevention all over the world with great success, including by some PANCAP Partners.  For practical examples BCC examples,  browse for Social Marketing Resources from the CARISMA project

See also: Cpdf-icon 16ARISMA Programme Summary (Behaviour Change)

 for more information please contact Valerie Beach Horne at

The Caribbean HIV & AIDS Alliance's strategic approach to behaviour change is guided by evidence-based individual behaviour change theory within an appreciation of prevalent social and cultural norms and how they influence and interact with individual and community risk-taking and health-seeking behaviour. We seek to counteract the negative factors that influence risk-taking behaviour by focusing on interventions that reduce vulnerability to infection, including interventions that are informed by social learning theory, theories of gender and power, and cognitive behavioural theory.

Central to the approach of Behaviour Change Communication (BCC) has been to build upon and deepen the existing work of the Community Animators which has been so successful at reaching most at risk populations. One-on-one interventions with those most-at-risk of exposure to HIV have remained one of the main approaches of trying to effect behaviour change. A critical success factor to the Community Animator model is the fact that the outreach workers are recruited from the target populations. The Community Animator approach also incorporates targeted Information Education Communication materials, including strategic use of Information Communication Technology (ICT) and the distribution of commodities like condoms and lubricants. Importantly, we have also helped to build the capacity of the Animator outreach workers, community based organisations, volunteers, health and social care providers who promote behaviour change with the target beneficiaries of this programme.

The activities and channels we have employed are to identify and reach those who are most at risk of exposure by their risk-taking behaviour, while also remaining focused on particular population groups that are extremely vulnerable on each of the islands. We have ensured that our approach fully acknowledges that the people most at risk have multiple identities to therefore varied risks to HIV and STI exposure. Through support of faith based organisations (FBOs), workplace sensitisation, and health and social care providers, we aim to decrease stigma and discrimination to create a more enabling environment for prevention, increasing knowledge of HIV status and improve early treatment seeking behaviours. Understanding the diversity and complexity of human behaviour has guided and informed our prevention and behaviour change activities, and the full and active participation of the beneficiaries of the Eastern Caribbean Community Action Project (EC-CAP) has been essential for success.

To achieve this, we have introduced programme interventions, which include approaches developed in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's project named, "Diffusion of Evidence Based Interventions" (DEBI), which was designed to bring science-based, community, group, and individual-level HIV prevention interventions to community-based service providers and state and local health departments. The goal is to enhance the capacity to implement effective interventions at the state and local levels, to reduce the spread of HIV and STDs, and to promote healthy behaviors. In particular, we are adapting the Mpowerment, SISTA and Popular Opinion Leaders programmes to local context for key at risk populations in the region.

Drawing on the rich tradition of Caribbean culture (music, theatrical drama, oral tradition and dancing) we prepare prevention materials that use Caribbean culture to transmit behaviour change messages.


  • The use of the "Edutainment" based on the methods of "Theatre in Education-Drama in Education" (TIE DIE) has been introduced to the programme to further reinforce messages. These Caribbean friendly communication methods adopt similar approaches used by groups such as:

    • ASHE (Jamaica).
    • Artist in Direct Support (AIDS) (Guyana).
    • Barcum (Trinidad).
  • These approaches have been focused on large public celebrations, sporting events, World AIDS Day and "Culturama" in Nevis.
  • We have also explored giving small grants and technical support to local artists and performers to develop these interventions.
  • In the first year of the project, we had developed interventions for each of the Carnivals in each country.

For more information on the work on the Caribbean HIV & AIDS Alliance please click here